The History of Surgical Technology


Surgical technologists are not as well known as other healthcare professionals such as doctors and nurses, yet they play the all important role of assisting surgeons during surgical procedures.

Surgical technology is a recent profession that resulted from the need for trained medical personnel after the succession of wars that plagued the world in the last century severely decimated their numbers. Many nurses and doctors were called to serve during theses wars to attend to medical needs of the soldiers on the battlefront, and those wounded and confined in medical camps and hospitals as well.

Surgical technology rose from the ashes of the succession of world wars participated in by the United States: World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), the Korean War (1950-1953), and the Vietnam War (1945-1975). During World War I, Army medics were conscripted and trained to give emergency services. Nurses were not allowed to serve on the battlefield but were confined to medical stations. The Army medic’s counterpart in the Navy was the medical corpsman since women were not allowed aboard combat ships at that time.

Thus the role of operating room technicians, or ORTs, was thus created. ORTs took the place of female nurses in the battlefield. They received training through an accelerated nursing program that emphasized on operating room technology and received on-the-job training in the surgery department. Their studies included sterilization of instruments, care of operating room patients, suturing, draping and instrumentation. They likewise received Emergency Room training.

After the Korean War, the shortage of nurses to work in operating rooms in the United States led to the hiring of ex-medics and ex-corpsmen to work in civilian hospitals. These ex-military men performed. Over time, this arrangement led to the evolution of the title of ‘operating room technician’ to ‘surgical technologist’.

Improvements in surgical technology that started in the late ’60s led to the formalization of the role of surgical technologists in the ’70s. More and more institutions began designing and developing surgical technology programs. In 1968, the Association of Operating Room Technicians was created. This was composed of two committees: the Joint Committee on Education, and the Liaison Council on Certification for the Surgical Technologist. Successful examinees to the first certification test that was given in 1970 were bestowed the title of Certified Operating Room Technician (CORT or OR Tech). In 1973, the Association of Operating Room Technicians changed their name to the Association of Surgical Technologists (AST), now an independent body. They changed the title Certified Operating Room Technician to Surgical Technologist, thus creating a new name. Since 1973, the AST has been diligently working to promote excellence in the surgical technology profession.

In 1974, an accreditation body was created to ensure quality education for the surgical technician. The Accreditation Review Committee for Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting imposed as an entry level to surgical technology education a two-year associate’s degree. Today, aspiring surgical technologists are required to take the national certification examination designed by the National Board of Surgical Technologists and Surgical Assistants (NBSTSA) in order to qualify as Certified Surgical Technologists, or CSTs. This certification is renewable by reexamination.


Make Your Own Beats On Your PC


Making your own beats is something that many people aspire to do, and with the help of music making software more people than ever before are making their own music and beats. No longer do you need to get into a recording studio, or pay many thousands of dollars on expensive equipment, in order to get started making some beats and tracks. It is now possible to produce studio quality beats from the comfort of your own home.

The music industry continues to grow and many people are getting a start in music production with software on their pc, where in the past they would have little hope of getting an opportunity. This oppurtunity is allowing for many talented people to get a start in the music industry, where in the past they wolud have little to no chance to show their talents. So for anyone who thinks they can make it as a music producer, they now have a fighting chance thanks to music mixing software.

For as little as forty dollars you can buy a high quality music production product that will suit the needs of pretty much anyone. Music software is very easy to use but can produce studio quality output, meaning you will never have any issues with sound quality if you wish to sell your work. Music mixing software has changed the music production scene for ever, and gives almost everyone a chance to achieve their music production dream.

The process for using music software is quite simple. Firstly you need to lay out the bluprint of your track with the sequencer. Next you need to work out your drum beat. Lastly your produce your melody and add in some special effects. You can also mix up the tempo, and adjust the volume on any particular element of the track. At any stage in the process you can go back and tweak each element. With a little inspiration and flair you could produce some killer tracks, maybe even a future dance anthem if you are really good. Even if you are not so serious and just looking to have a little fun making some tracks, then music software can be a fun, exciting and cheap form of entertainment.

Making your own beats and tracks has never been easier or more affordable. Music software makes it easy, fun and affordable to make your own music, so why not give it a try and see what you can produce.


Source by Antonie Guttencline

Solar Energy Roof Negatives


A solar energy roof is a great way to help you save some money on your electric bill. What you might not realize though is that having a solar energy roof can have some negatives that you will want to learn about. I am sure that you might have seem some of the positives already in place that people tell you about. Here are a couple of the negatives that you will want to take into consideration when you are looking at having your own solar energy roof.

1. The roof needs to have a slope

While this negative is somewhat true that your roof will need to have some form of a slope you can use them on a flat roof just you will not end up collecting as much of the suns energy as possible. So if you have a flat roof you will want to take that into consideration when you are looking at this form or power for your home.

2. They Can Be Expensive

If you have looked at harvesting the suns power before then you probably realize just how expensive the panels can be. However, the one way that you can save money on this is by building your own. So the expense might be a problem for some people, but if you have some technical skills and handyman skills you can easily build your own.

While you might think that this is the cure all for your power needs it can be helpful at times, but remember that it does have some negatives associated with it as well. Once you consider the negatives you can make a very informed decision.


Source by Trinity Bainum

Apples in American Culture – Why, Apples are as Amercian as Apple Pie!


Here in the United States, though, we have many traditional fruits. Of course, perhaps the most popular and most traditional fruit that we grow is the apple. In fact, apples are such traditional fruits that they have become ingrained in our culture.

Take a look at some of the ways in which apples have moved off the tree and into our language, games, and stories:

It is a very common in our culture for someone to say, “That is like comparing apples and oranges,” Meaning that you are trying to compare two things that are incomparable.

Apples have even made it into our folklore: most kids know the story of Johnny Appleseed, the boy who traveled across the United States with an upside down pot on his head, dispersing apple seeds.

And everyone knows that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Although this proverb has some merit, most still just pass it off as an old wive’s tale. An apple a day will not keep the doctor away if you do not also eat right, exercise, and refrain from excesses such as smoking and drinking a lot!

A phrase that really shows how apples have become a major part of our society is, “that is as American as apple pie!” Apples are completely ingrained in our culture, and apple pies are an American icon, reminiscent the “happy” years in the United States.

A rotten or bad apple is not just a piece of bad fruit. This idiom describes the one “bad” or “rotten” person in a group.

Other popular phrases that we often use in our culture are: “the apple of my eye” and “how do you like them apples!”

As you can see, there are many ways in which apples are fully ingrained into our culture. In fact, it is likely that no other fruit is nearly as important to our American culture as the apple is.

The apple is truly a traditional fruit in the United States, and it is a fruit that seems to have many traditions associated with it.

For instance, “bobbing for apples.” This is a game that is especially popular around the autumn months and Halloween. In this game, a large bucket or cauldron is filled with water, and apples are place in it to float. Participants must bob for the apples, trying to catch one in their teeth, without using their hands.

If, though, you take a look at another culture, a culture in another region of the world, they will likely have far different traditional fruits. And along with their different traditional fruits, they will likely have different idioms, stories, and games based on those fruits, wound into their culture.


About Acapulco


Mexico's first great resort destination, Acapulco is a stunning beautiful city located around a bay on the Pacific Ocean, with miles of easily-accessible beaches. It's truly in the tropics, with palm trees and other exotic plants everywhere. Views across the bay are gorgeous, the sunsets are legendary, and the city lights at night are lovely from every vantage point.

What to do? Swimming (but note that some beaches have rough surf and undertows), working on your tan, eating and drinking at the wide variety of restaurants and clubs … and staying up late (or all night) to go dancing at the discos. Scuba diving, fishing, boating, and other water sports are available, as are golf courses and tennis courts. The shopping is great fun, although do not expect the best bargains in Mexico in this tourist-oriented city. Famous divers jump off extremely high cliffs into the sea at La Quebrada … that's something to watch, not to do! Most of all, Acapulco is a place to relax.

I've been to Acapulco both as a child and as an adult. Of course, the city has changed a lot; The quaint little motel just a block from the beach where we stayed when I was a kid is long gone, replaced with newer, taller buildings.

I adored the city as a child, and I continue to like its natural beauty and its beaches. Although it is now a huge city and very tourist-oriented, I still think Acapulco is an outstanding place for a beach vacation. The glittering celebrities are more likely to go to the newer resorts – Cancun and others that were small towns or fishing ports when Acapulco was the rising star.

If you explore the central market and other places away from the obvious main tourist areas, you can get a real connection with the people. Many of the tourists nowdays are Mexican, and you can chat with them on the beach. Do not speak Spanish? No problem! Smiles go a long way, and many Mexicans know some English.

The weather in Acapulco is very nice all winter, hot and humid in the summer. Good thing the beach is there!


Source by Rosana Hart

Accuracy and Attention to Detail – Key Requirements for a Pharmacy Technician


Many Americans are looking for a recession proof job, which is fulfilling and rewarding. The pharmacy industry experienced a surge in growth lately. The projected growth rate of a particular kind of technician is especially promising. Pharmacy techs are indispensable in the day to day operations of the pharmacy. Many jobs are available, and a pharmacy technician can work in many different work places. Many pharmacies are open 24 hours, which can result in odd work hours for the technician.

A pharmacy tech is often considered the right hand of the pharmacist. He/she has a variety of duties in the pharmacy. The particular duties of a pharmacist technician depend largely on the place of employment, experience, and seniority. Online and retail pharmacies operate in many ways similar to pharmacies located in drugstores and grocery stores. In most work environments, the technician’s duties include data entry for storing and sorting purposes, labeling bottles, filling prescriptions, as well as dispensing medications to patients/customers.

Keeping an accurate count of stored medications, and maintaining the stock, are also duties of a pharmacy technician. This includes all over-the-counter medications as well. Filling out insurance claims, and contacting insurance companies are the responsibility of a technician. Questions related to prescriptions sometimes require a technician to contact the patient’s physician for verification. The preparation of IV solutions, creams, and ointments can also be done by the pharmacy technician.

As an assistant to the pharmacist, clerical and administrative duties are also fulfilled by the pharmacy tech. This mainly includes answering the phone, and managing the financial operations of the pharmacy. Customer service is a big part of the daily duties of any pharmacy technician. Regardless of the size of pharmacy, dealing with customers, or patients if your workplace is a hospital or clinic, is a requirement.

Filling prescriptions and dispensing medications are tasks that need attention to detail. Accuracy is important, as filling a prescription incorrectly can ultimately cause a lot of harm to a patient/customer. Adverse reactions can even cause death. Medications are often named very similar. Double-checking the medication and the dosage ensures, the patient/customer receives the right medication for his/her condition. It is also important to be aware of exchanging brand name medications with equivalent generic medications, as these may contain additional ingredients.

Pharmacy techs are not allowed to advise patients/customers. For any questions regarding medications, they have to refer the patient/customer to the pharmacist. The pharmacist is the person, who has to give information about possible adverse reactions or general information about medical issues to the patient. Technicians can only refer to the pharmacist for question, even though they may know the answer.

A career in this field is rewarding. Someone, who likes to deal with people, enjoys responsibility, is diligent, and has the required attention to detail, will find this occupation very fulfilling. The predicted job growth rate is higher than average. Pharmacy technicians can advance by being certified. A CPR certificate is an example for such a certification. The median salary of a pharmacy technician is around $ 25,000-30,000 annually.


RMS Power vs Peak Power


RMS and Peak power are ratings used to determine the overall performance of home audio products, such as speakers, subwoofers, and amplifiers. This article is an overview of how these ratings work and are applied.

RMS Power referers to Root-Means-Square power. The formula for determining RMS power is 70.7 x Peak Power Rating. The RMS power rating is a measure of continuous power measured in watts and the higher the RMS power means the device is either able to provide or accept the specified power over a significant length of time without fail.

Many suppliers use the PEAK POWER ratings in their specifications. We do not recommend the use of Peak Power ratings when assessing the capabilities of a music product because Peak Power does not reflect a product's capabilities under normal, every day use. It is simply a measure of how much power can be generated of handled for a very short period of time. Speakers, subwoofers and amplifiers should be compared using the RMS power ratings to ensure that the right product is chosen for the application in question.

As an example, if a speaker has a RMS wattage rating of 100 watts and a connected amplifier has a RMS wattage rating of 100 watts, the speaker should theoretically, be a perfect match regarding power capabilities and result in optimum performance from both products. Most importantly do not be fooled by "Peaker Power" or the erroneous numbers often made up by the supplier. Only true power, under everyday, realistic circumstances actually means anything.


Source by Patrick McMullen

The Differences Between An LPN And An Ultrasound Technician


An ultrasound technician or sonographer differs from an LPN in many ways. An ultrasound technician is someone who captures images of a patient’s internal structures through the use of ultrasound equipment, while an LPN is a person licensed by the state that provides care to old, disabled, injured, terminally ill, or sick patients. LPNs can be found working in a broader range of work settings and they also have more tasks than sonographers.

LPN Job Description

An LPN’s duties and responsibilities range from administrative or clerical tasks to clinical practice. LPNs gather and record the patient’s history and symptoms, they keep records, and they make appointments. They also take vital signs, prepare and administer injections, help patients prepare for medical exams, collect test samples, assist supervisors in performing laboratory procedures and tests, treat wounds, and provide bedside care to patients and assist them with daily living tasks. Furthermore, LPNs offer emotional support to patients and their family members. They can be found working in hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, nursing care facilities, schools, plus many more.


To become an LPN, a candidate has to take a program, which is commonly competed in approximately one year. The program is divided into clinical practice and classroom instruction. Clinical practice takes place at a hospital or a clinic. Classroom instruction focuses on nursing courses such as anatomy and physiology, fundamentals of nursing, psychiatric nursing, nutrition, maternity and child health, and pharmacology.

Salary And Advancement

An LPNs average salary is around $39,000 annually. LPNs have the choice to advance their career into registered nurse. If that is what they desire, then they will have to acquire a nursing diploma, an associate’s degree in nursing, or a bachelor’s degree in nursing. All candidates will need to pass the NCLEX-RN exam in order to practice as a registered nurse.

Ultrasound Technician Job Description

An ultrasound tech analyzes and interprets diagnostic images taken with ultrasound equipment. Ultrasound techs provide summaries, either oral or written, of technical findings. They direct the patient’s position and they explain the ultrasound procedures to the patient. They also perform equipment maintenance and they keep records. Ultrasound techs can be found working in hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, and diagnostic imaging centers.


Most ultrasound techs hold an associate’s degree in medical sonography. Associate’s degree programs can be completed in two years. For those that want to earn their bachelor’s degree, four-year programs are available. Completing a one-year program to earn a vocational certificate in sonography is the minimum qualification available to those who want to become an ultrasound tech. Coursework may include classes in patient care, medical ethics, anatomy, physiology, and basic physics.

Salary And Advancement

The average annual wage of ultrasound techs is around $62,000. They can seek advancement by specializing in more than one area. Specializing in two or more areas will expand their opportunities. They can become educators, administrators, or researchers with additional education and experience.

What To Choose

Being an LPN is as rewarding as being an ultrasound technician. Deciding what career path to take greatly depends on your preferences and your skills and abilities. It is important that you examine each career carefully and learn which one is more suitable for you before you make your final decision.


Hosting and SEO – Does Hosting Affect SEO?


There are dozens and hundreds of SEO factors, and one of those factors is hosting. So to answer the question posed in the title (does hosting affect SEO), YES hosting and SEO are linked. Let's take a look at how hosting affects SEO.

When you break ti down, there are two major ways in which hosting effects SEO; So I will cover each one individually now.

First, if, for example, your website is on the same IP address as a site which is spamming the high heaven out of the internet, meaning that they're creating lots of low quality links to their sites from all over or maybe this site Is even a link farm which is a low quality site which exists solely for the purpose of generating links, then search engines can target that IP address and punishment anyone else who exists on it. That may sound very unfair but it happens just because it's easier for the search engine and there have been a few documented cases of that exactly happening.

Secondly (the second way in which hosting and SEO are linked), another major way in which your hosting can hurt your ranking is if you're having problems with your hosting in terms of keeping your website online and accessible. Having a website which experiences a lot of downtime can have two fallouts:

One – Webmasters who link to you begin to get notifications that your site is down and their links are pointing to an unreachable website, causing them to remove their links and consequently any boosts in the SERPs which now disappears along with Those links.

Two – Search engines themselves will notice that your site is unreachable and will penal you / lower your ranking because they do not want to be directing their customers to inaccessible websites, which does make sense for them.

Therefore it behooves you to go with a hosting company who you can trust. I've used GoDaddy hosting for 6 years and have never had any downtime issues once, but it's up to you to choose a good, well known, reliable hosting provider for your site. Unfortunately good hosting will not reward you or improve your rankings, but it's important to consider your hosting because as I have outlined and detailed in this article, hosting can still have a very negative affect on how you rank in the SERPs.


Source by Paul M Ventura

B.Tech in Civil Engineering


It is essential for the infrastructure of a country to grow if the economy of the country has to grow. An increase in demand of infrastructure will lead to an increase in demand for Engineers. B-Tech in Civil Engineering will help you gain a strong foothold in this field. There are many opportunities for Civil Engineers and enough scope for growth in a sector that is essential to the growth of a country. All Engineers are in demand for rail, road, bridges, waterways and other such infrastructure development projects.

They work in hand with town planning as it helps developing water resources, sewage treatment facilities and other such solutions to problems that the society may face. During the course you will learn about project management, structural sciences and construction. The course includes modules in Structural Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Over the duration of the course students learn through theory as well as practice as they work on live projects.

The course is supported by an enabling faculty and a modern laboratory space.

The requirements for application to this course includes 50% aggregate in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics at Senior/ High School Graduation. Apart from this, applicants will also be judged according to their JEE score.

This is a field with immense scope as infrastructure takes on a predominant role in Government investment. Employment of civil engineers is projected to grow at 8% from 2014 to 2024 and higher as India keeps up pace with China at the global level.

Moreover, as the scope increases and times change, there will be a need for environmental engineers and engineers to plan smart infrastructure for smart cities. a student who have gone on to become architects, technicians, construction managers, environmental engineers, landscape architects, surveyors and urban and regional planners.

Both the private and government sectors are constantly on the lookout for good civil engineers. Some of the private sector companies include Shapoorji Pallonji and Larsen & Toubro. In the Government Sector, you have to clear the Indian Engineering Service and can then be hired for top positions in the Government. With the 7th pay commission, the average salary in the Government sector is at par with the private sector.

After working for a few years in infrastructure and real estate, you would also become a Subject Matter Experts. Such Subject Matter Experts are in high demand in consultancies. An MBA would further bolster your candidature should you prefer to pursue this field.

Beyond B.Tech., civil engineers can also further pursue the professional line of designing. This requires strong analytical skills and experience with AutoCAD. Proficiency in 3D printing could be a great advantage for the future. In the recent past, civil engineering has also found use in robotics and mechatronics. Civil engineers are able to determine load bearing capacities of robots and self-engaging systems that are used in construction. An M. Tech in the combined field will give you a strong hold in this niche but rapidly growing category.

In essence, a civil engineers job is to ensure the smooth running of the economy. This could include buildings that are sturdy as residences, roads that sustain over the years and cause less wear and tear or bridges to be built over rivers.