The History of Surgical Technology

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Surgical technologists are not as well known as other healthcare professionals such as doctors and nurses, yet they play the all important role of assisting surgeons during surgical procedures.

Surgical technology is a recent profession that resulted from the need for trained medical personnel after the succession of wars that plagued the world in the last century severely decimated their numbers. Many nurses and doctors were called to serve during theses wars to attend to medical needs of the soldiers on the battlefront, and those wounded and confined in medical camps and hospitals as well.

Surgical technology rose from the ashes of the succession of world wars participated in by the United States: World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), the Korean War (1950-1953), and the Vietnam War (1945-1975). During World War I, Army medics were conscripted and trained to give emergency services. Nurses were not allowed to serve on the battlefield but were confined to medical stations. The Army medic’s counterpart in the Navy was the medical corpsman since women were not allowed aboard combat ships at that time.

Thus the role of operating room technicians, or ORTs, was thus created. ORTs took the place of female nurses in the battlefield. They received training through an accelerated nursing program that emphasized on operating room technology and received on-the-job training in the surgery department. Their studies included sterilization of instruments, care of operating room patients, suturing, draping and instrumentation. They likewise received Emergency Room training.

After the Korean War, the shortage of nurses to work in operating rooms in the United States led to the hiring of ex-medics and ex-corpsmen to work in civilian hospitals. These ex-military men performed. Over time, this arrangement led to the evolution of the title of ‘operating room technician’ to ‘surgical technologist’.

Improvements in surgical technology that started in the late ’60s led to the formalization of the role of surgical technologists in the ’70s. More and more institutions began designing and developing surgical technology programs. In 1968, the Association of Operating Room Technicians was created. This was composed of two committees: the Joint Committee on Education, and the Liaison Council on Certification for the Surgical Technologist. Successful examinees to the first certification test that was given in 1970 were bestowed the title of Certified Operating Room Technician (CORT or OR Tech). In 1973, the Association of Operating Room Technicians changed their name to the Association of Surgical Technologists (AST), now an independent body. They changed the title Certified Operating Room Technician to Surgical Technologist, thus creating a new name. Since 1973, the AST has been diligently working to promote excellence in the surgical technology profession.

In 1974, an accreditation body was created to ensure quality education for the surgical technician. The Accreditation Review Committee for Surgical Technology and Surgical Assisting imposed as an entry level to surgical technology education a two-year associate’s degree. Today, aspiring surgical technologists are required to take the national certification examination designed by the National Board of Surgical Technologists and Surgical Assistants (NBSTSA) in order to qualify as Certified Surgical Technologists, or CSTs. This certification is renewable by reexamination.

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The Importance of Children and Baby Photography

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Maternity pictures, newborn pictures, and baby and children pictures are the all time most enjoyable subjects for me to photograph. When I started my business, I decided that I would photograph a variety of subjects. I wanted to have the option of doing something different all the time, and really just wanted any opportunity to get behind the camera. Now that I have several shoots under my belt, a front runner has certainly appeared! There is a calmness, an ease, and a never ending flow of ideas when I shoot maternity photography, newborn photography, and babies and children photography. I have to literally fight the urge to chase pregnant women and mothers down in stores just to hand them my business card!

My love of baby photography stems from the love of my daughter. There is no love that compares to the love of a child. It is a primal love. Because of that love, you want to photograph everything! By everything, I mean EVERYTHING! My daughter is so sick of seeing me point a camera at her, but if I catch her before nap time, she is usually patient with me for a few minutes! The enjoyment that I get from being able to photograph her milestones, personality traits, gestures, etc has naturally flowed into a career.

Maternity pictures are so fascinating to me! It amazes me how many women cringe at the idea of a maternity photo shoot. They literally cringe! Why? Our bodies are miraculously built in a way that allows us to bring life into the world. We can carry a child within us as they grow and develop to the point that can safely survive in the world. Cringe? NO! Celebrate! Celebrate this moment is your life! Is your body the same as it was before? Of course not! But in No way is your body unattractive! This is a beautiful time in your life, and despite how you are probably feeling this very second, this will be over before you know it! Your body will go back, mostly, to the way it was before, and you’ll forget how strongly you could feel that teeny,tiny, little GIANT in your belly!! You’ll forget how uncomfortable you were at night, and how you couldn’t make it from one commercial break to the next without needing a bathroom break. Photograph this moment! It is such a short time period of your life, and will be over before you know it! Commemorate the way you look. If you are uncomfortable with stretch marks, So What!!! I’ll photo shop them out of there! If you’re having insecurities about your body, face them head on because I can promise you that a day will come where you will lay in bed at night and try as hard as you can to relieve these moments through a day dream! This is a quickly fleeing moment in your life, and the beginning to a beautiful, lifelong relationship with the most special human being you will ever meet! Believe me, maternity photography is not for amateurs! You want a professional who knows about DISTORTION. You want someone who knows what mm lens to use for this, so that you don’t get a picture back that makes your belly look three times bigger than it really is, and like it three dimensionally popping right out of the picture. This is something that requires a sensitive eye, and a delicate vision! You want to look back at these maternity pictures with fondness!

Newborn pictures are so important because that is the most quickly fleeing stage. You have about two weeks from their arrival to capture the essence that a newborn has. You can take these pictures yourself. You can point the camera at them, get the angle how you want it, and shoot. But, when you hire a professional who is trained and experienced, your newborn pictures will reach another level. You will be amazed at the different way a professional will “see” the subject. They are able to capture images that show texture, create feeling, and have a mood… Those pictures will engage the senses, and you’ll actually be able to remember the way your baby smells, you’ll remember the coo noise or the facial expression vividly. It’s an amazing thing to see how a correctly exposed, correctly framed picture will change the outcome of the image.

Baby pictures are so important because of the milestones. You do not count the age of a young child in years because a monumental amount of things change by month. Each of those milestones are photo worthy moments! Baby photography is every bit as important as the baby book. In the baby book you record the age your child is at as they reach their milestones, but the way they look at this stage seems to change weekly, if not daily. The first year of a child’s life is incredibly action packed, and, with a professional photographer, you can create a visual memory book that will immortalize the way your child looked when they first learned to roll over, scoot across the floor, crawl, walk, the way they could not have had one more droplet of drool on their face when they were teething, the face they make when they try a new food for the first time, their first steps, the first time they start wanting to brush their own teeth, do the “butt scoot” down the stairs, try to escape from their crib, the list goes on and on!!! You can create a variety of artistic ways to display these memories. I can create a multi frame display of these milestone moments, or create a milestone album that can be used in place of or with a baby book, etc. These moments are priceless, and with a professional photographer you can cherish these moments for a lifetime.

Children pictures are exciting to shoot because of the element of surprise! You just never know what you are going to get! Each child you photograph is unique from the child from the shoot the week before and from the ones you’ll meet the week after! Whether your child is shy or outgoing, athletic or intellectually engaged, or any combination imaginable, every child wants the same thing: to feel loved and to have fun. Those things offer every child security. When I go to photograph children, I do not just shake their hand and say, “action”! I do not expect them to just perform. Children want to feel secure before they will react well to an intimidatingly large camera in their face. I will get down on their level and have a normal conversation with them. I don’t immediately act like they should think I’m their friend, nor do I act like a clown. Children are incredibly intelligent, and have keen perception when determining if someone is being genuine and sincere with them. I find that children feel patronized when you instantly start joking and being silly. Unless you’re dressed like a clown, you should not act like one! I just talk to the child first to get an idea of what moves them, excites, and motivates them… We can use those answers to enhance the outcome of the photo shoot. If a child’s hobby is to race boats in the nearby pond, why would you take him/her to the playground 20 minutes up the street to get pictures of them on the monkey bars and posed in front of the fountain? It makes no sense! The purpose behind a professional photo shoot is to capture the essence of who your child is at this particular stage in their life! If your child is interested in music, have them photographed learning to play an instrument, if they are athletic, photograph them in their uniform playing the sport of their choice, if they are artistic and messy, photograph them getting messy and creating what they see as art! My style of photography is not to pose a child in front of some gorgeous background. I do not enjoy the cookie cutter, same shoot as the last style. Your child is special. Your child is unique. Your child is YOURS! Remember the things that makes your child uniquely yours! Remember this phase of their life! Is that musical instrument that they are tinkering with now going to lead to something huge? Could they grow up to be a famous musician? Yes! And, if you have a professional photographer you will have pictures with the ability to take you back in time, if only for a moment!

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Source by Christi K Craft

Apples in American Culture – Why, Apples are as Amercian as Apple Pie!

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Here in the United States, though, we have many traditional fruits. Of course, perhaps the most popular and most traditional fruit that we grow is the apple. In fact, apples are such traditional fruits that they have become ingrained in our culture.

Take a look at some of the ways in which apples have moved off the tree and into our language, games, and stories:

It is a very common in our culture for someone to say, “That is like comparing apples and oranges,” Meaning that you are trying to compare two things that are incomparable.

Apples have even made it into our folklore: most kids know the story of Johnny Appleseed, the boy who traveled across the United States with an upside down pot on his head, dispersing apple seeds.

And everyone knows that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Although this proverb has some merit, most still just pass it off as an old wive’s tale. An apple a day will not keep the doctor away if you do not also eat right, exercise, and refrain from excesses such as smoking and drinking a lot!

A phrase that really shows how apples have become a major part of our society is, “that is as American as apple pie!” Apples are completely ingrained in our culture, and apple pies are an American icon, reminiscent the “happy” years in the United States.

A rotten or bad apple is not just a piece of bad fruit. This idiom describes the one “bad” or “rotten” person in a group.

Other popular phrases that we often use in our culture are: “the apple of my eye” and “how do you like them apples!”

As you can see, there are many ways in which apples are fully ingrained into our culture. In fact, it is likely that no other fruit is nearly as important to our American culture as the apple is.

The apple is truly a traditional fruit in the United States, and it is a fruit that seems to have many traditions associated with it.

For instance, “bobbing for apples.” This is a game that is especially popular around the autumn months and Halloween. In this game, a large bucket or cauldron is filled with water, and apples are place in it to float. Participants must bob for the apples, trying to catch one in their teeth, without using their hands.

If, though, you take a look at another culture, a culture in another region of the world, they will likely have far different traditional fruits. And along with their different traditional fruits, they will likely have different idioms, stories, and games based on those fruits, wound into their culture.

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Accuracy and Attention to Detail – Key Requirements for a Pharmacy Technician

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Many Americans are looking for a recession proof job, which is fulfilling and rewarding. The pharmacy industry experienced a surge in growth lately. The projected growth rate of a particular kind of technician is especially promising. Pharmacy techs are indispensable in the day to day operations of the pharmacy. Many jobs are available, and a pharmacy technician can work in many different work places. Many pharmacies are open 24 hours, which can result in odd work hours for the technician.

A pharmacy tech is often considered the right hand of the pharmacist. He/she has a variety of duties in the pharmacy. The particular duties of a pharmacist technician depend largely on the place of employment, experience, and seniority. Online and retail pharmacies operate in many ways similar to pharmacies located in drugstores and grocery stores. In most work environments, the technician’s duties include data entry for storing and sorting purposes, labeling bottles, filling prescriptions, as well as dispensing medications to patients/customers.

Keeping an accurate count of stored medications, and maintaining the stock, are also duties of a pharmacy technician. This includes all over-the-counter medications as well. Filling out insurance claims, and contacting insurance companies are the responsibility of a technician. Questions related to prescriptions sometimes require a technician to contact the patient’s physician for verification. The preparation of IV solutions, creams, and ointments can also be done by the pharmacy technician.

As an assistant to the pharmacist, clerical and administrative duties are also fulfilled by the pharmacy tech. This mainly includes answering the phone, and managing the financial operations of the pharmacy. Customer service is a big part of the daily duties of any pharmacy technician. Regardless of the size of pharmacy, dealing with customers, or patients if your workplace is a hospital or clinic, is a requirement.

Filling prescriptions and dispensing medications are tasks that need attention to detail. Accuracy is important, as filling a prescription incorrectly can ultimately cause a lot of harm to a patient/customer. Adverse reactions can even cause death. Medications are often named very similar. Double-checking the medication and the dosage ensures, the patient/customer receives the right medication for his/her condition. It is also important to be aware of exchanging brand name medications with equivalent generic medications, as these may contain additional ingredients.

Pharmacy techs are not allowed to advise patients/customers. For any questions regarding medications, they have to refer the patient/customer to the pharmacist. The pharmacist is the person, who has to give information about possible adverse reactions or general information about medical issues to the patient. Technicians can only refer to the pharmacist for question, even though they may know the answer.

A career in this field is rewarding. Someone, who likes to deal with people, enjoys responsibility, is diligent, and has the required attention to detail, will find this occupation very fulfilling. The predicted job growth rate is higher than average. Pharmacy technicians can advance by being certified. A CPR certificate is an example for such a certification. The median salary of a pharmacy technician is around $ 25,000-30,000 annually.

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Setting Up Your Nikon D3400 DSLR Camera to Shoot Videos

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THE NIKON D3400 VIDEO SET UP

The Nikon D3400 is an entry-level DSLR camera designed by Nikon for people who are moving up from bridge cameras or from compact cameras and whilst it takes excellent stills it also shoots superb video. One of the selling points of this camera is that it shoots Full HD video which is 1080 at 60 frames per second, which is really very impressive, and gives you a very smooth and very high quality video reproduction. One of the downsides however is that it doesn’t have an external microphone socket and that is very much in common with most cameras in this category – though ironically its predecessor, the Nikon D3300, does have an external microphone socket and I would say that if you’re going to shoot a lot of video, which will require a lot of sound when you’re actually recording the video – perhaps you are doing interviews or you are recording bands – then you might want to look at the D3300 rather than this camera.

On the other hand one of the things that I really do like about this camera is that it has a lot of effects and modes, so that you can be quite creative with the way that you shoot stills and those effects are translated through to videos too which is really quite fun. So you can have a lot of fun with photo illustration which shoots a sort of comic effect but in video. You can have fun with the miniature effect which shoots a sort of time lapse but within the miniature effect option, and you can also have some great fun which I found with toy camera effect which gives a really OLDE WORLDE type of shot through video with vignette and quite unsaturated color.

Before you shoot video you need to change some of the settings in the menus. So first of all switch the camera on and press the menu button and you are looking for the shooting menu. The video options are right at the bottom of the page so you could use the multi selector to go all the way down or you can press it one up and, because it’s on a rotating dial, it means that you go straight to movie settings. Then you can choose your FRAME RATE and FRAME SIZE. There are two different frame rates one is NTSC which is mainly for America and that will give you 60 frames per second or 30 frames per second, and the other is PAL which is mainly for Europe which will give you 50 frames per second and 25 frames per second. It is quite important that you choose the correct one for your country so it’s worth checking if you are not sure. I would recommend 1080 at the highest frame rate, obviously. It will go down to 720 which is perfectly acceptable for social media for YouTube etc. If you move one down on the menu you can have a look at movie quality which, of course, should be high rather than normal and then go down one more option to microphone. The D3400 doesn’t have an external microphone socket, but it does have an internal microphone which can be reasonably effective over short distances.

You have three options for microphone – the first one is AUTO, which is okay and worked reasonably well for ambient sound, the second one is MANUAL, which I would recommend because it gives you more control over the sound that you’re recording. If you are in manual you should be aiming for your sound to peak at 12, so if you can test out the recording before hand – if somebody’s talking for example – then what you’re really looking for is when that person is at their loudest, to peak on 12 and you can use the multi selector to move the sensitivity up or down to ensure that that happens. The final one is to switch microphone OFF and I don’t recommend that at all even if you don’t intend using the sound used having the sound on the video is actually a very useful way of selecting clips when you’re editing. Coming out of that you then go on to wind noise reduction which doesn’t make a huge amount of difference. The final option is manual movie settings. If you leave that off, then even if you go into manual on here you won’t be on manual settings because you’ve switched it off here. If you switch it on here you can use the manual settings and the auto settings so I would recommend that you switch that on.

Once you’ve changed the menu settings you can start looking through the camera to see what you’re actually seeing when you want to shoot a video. In order to do that you have to press the Live View button at the back. There are two quite important buttons here for when you are in Live View and one is the info button on the top and the other is the i button which is down on the bottom left-hand corner next to the screen. When you switch initially to Live View you will see a lot of information going along the top of the screen. Now, because you have switched on to Live View this isn’t yet on to video mode and so a lot of the information is, in fact, for stills so for example you will have what mode it’s in, whether it’s on auto or manual aperture priority, flash on/off, the shutter setting, the auto focus settings, the picture control setting, the white balance and whether the stills size and quality. If you press the info button on the top once then, you will now be in video mode, and that tells you more relevant information about what you have actually got as settings for video. If you are in this mode and you press the i button, that gives you all the things that you can change when you are in this mode. If you are on auto it allows you to change the frame size and quality, the microphone settings, the wind noise reduction and the focus mode. If you switch the camera to M for manual and go into that setting then it will give much more information. It will show movie frame size and quality, the white balance, the microphone settings, ISO, the picture control, wind noise reduction, auto focus area mode control and the focus mode. So that is one really useful way of seeing what is available to you when you are shooting video. If you press the i mode again to come out of that and then press the info button again, then that information disappears, so that the screen is fairly bare, but we do get the marker showing the extent of the video. When you’re shooting video you will notice that you don’t get the entire full screen that you would when you’re shooting stills and that is because the area of the sensor being used to shoot video is smaller, and so you get a smaller area on the screen that actually is included within the video range. That will change slightly if you’re shooting 1080 or if you’re shooting 720 so it’s worth keeping an eye on. If you press the info button one more time, then you get the grid so that you can keep everything level.

In many ways the settings for shooting stills or videos on a DSLR are the same. For example, you can use the dial mode to select the mode in which you want to shoot either stills or video. You can have it on AUTO you can have it on Manual and the parameters are effectively the same. You can change your ISO, you can change your aperture or you can change your shutter speed. The only extra element when you are shooting video is your frame rate and that is selected when when you chose 1080-60 or 1080-50 or 30 or 25 or 720, so the frame rate is the extra element for video. Now if you are shooting at a given frame rate it is recommended that your shutter speed is twice that frame rate. So if you are shooting at 30 frames per second, the shutter speed should be about 160th. Likewise if you’re shooting at 60 frames per second then your frame rate should be about 125th. You do have some flexibility here, you could easily go up to 1/200th or 1/400th if that’s what you want without the video suffering too much.

In terms of keeping quality as good as possible then you’d like the ISO to be as low as possible and the aperture, of course, will control your depth of field. The three elements here, ISO, Aperture and Shutter Speed can all be changed when you are in the manual setting. The odd one out, in a sense, is aperture because you cannot change the aperture when you are actually shooting the video, so you need to pre-set your aperture and you can only do that outside of Live View. When you are in the back screen you can change aperture by pressing the exposure button on the top and using the main dial. Now at this point you can also change the ISO and the Shutter Speed in exactly the same way. You can change the shutter speed by using the main dial on its own and you can change the ISO by looking at the i button and moving across and choosing the ISO and changing it. However you may want to change either the ISO or the shutter speed whilst you are actually shooting the video, in which case you can either use the function button which you have preset to change ISO and use the main dial which will change the ISO, even if you’re shooting at the same time. Or you can use the main dial on its own to change the shutter speed. Again even if you’re shooting video at the time and the great thing about using the back screen is that you can instantly see the change, in either changing shutter speed or ISO, the image will go lighter or darker.

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Source by Jeremy Bayston

The Differences Between An LPN And An Ultrasound Technician

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An ultrasound technician or sonographer differs from an LPN in many ways. An ultrasound technician is someone who captures images of a patient’s internal structures through the use of ultrasound equipment, while an LPN is a person licensed by the state that provides care to old, disabled, injured, terminally ill, or sick patients. LPNs can be found working in a broader range of work settings and they also have more tasks than sonographers.

LPN Job Description

An LPN’s duties and responsibilities range from administrative or clerical tasks to clinical practice. LPNs gather and record the patient’s history and symptoms, they keep records, and they make appointments. They also take vital signs, prepare and administer injections, help patients prepare for medical exams, collect test samples, assist supervisors in performing laboratory procedures and tests, treat wounds, and provide bedside care to patients and assist them with daily living tasks. Furthermore, LPNs offer emotional support to patients and their family members. They can be found working in hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, nursing care facilities, schools, plus many more.

Education

To become an LPN, a candidate has to take a program, which is commonly competed in approximately one year. The program is divided into clinical practice and classroom instruction. Clinical practice takes place at a hospital or a clinic. Classroom instruction focuses on nursing courses such as anatomy and physiology, fundamentals of nursing, psychiatric nursing, nutrition, maternity and child health, and pharmacology.

Salary And Advancement

An LPNs average salary is around $39,000 annually. LPNs have the choice to advance their career into registered nurse. If that is what they desire, then they will have to acquire a nursing diploma, an associate’s degree in nursing, or a bachelor’s degree in nursing. All candidates will need to pass the NCLEX-RN exam in order to practice as a registered nurse.

Ultrasound Technician Job Description

An ultrasound tech analyzes and interprets diagnostic images taken with ultrasound equipment. Ultrasound techs provide summaries, either oral or written, of technical findings. They direct the patient’s position and they explain the ultrasound procedures to the patient. They also perform equipment maintenance and they keep records. Ultrasound techs can be found working in hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Education

Most ultrasound techs hold an associate’s degree in medical sonography. Associate’s degree programs can be completed in two years. For those that want to earn their bachelor’s degree, four-year programs are available. Completing a one-year program to earn a vocational certificate in sonography is the minimum qualification available to those who want to become an ultrasound tech. Coursework may include classes in patient care, medical ethics, anatomy, physiology, and basic physics.

Salary And Advancement

The average annual wage of ultrasound techs is around $62,000. They can seek advancement by specializing in more than one area. Specializing in two or more areas will expand their opportunities. They can become educators, administrators, or researchers with additional education and experience.

What To Choose

Being an LPN is as rewarding as being an ultrasound technician. Deciding what career path to take greatly depends on your preferences and your skills and abilities. It is important that you examine each career carefully and learn which one is more suitable for you before you make your final decision.

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Pros And Cons of Selfie Culture

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In the modern life, it is fashionable to name the latest trends and technologies with short and crisp words such as SciFi, HiFi and WiFi. The latest addition is the Selfie, which is a photograph of the self, taken by the photographer. It can be taken with a handheld digital camera or tablet or smartphone. Special sticks or stands to hold the smartphones are now available to facilitate better photos without the help of a third person. Selfies are often used for sharing on social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Tumblr. Most of the selfies are taken with a camera held at arm’s length without a self-timer. In olden days, people used to photograph the self by uncovering the lens of the camera and running into the shot. Another method was to position the camera on a nearby object or on a tripod and capture the self-image reflected in a mirror.

There are two types of Selfies. When it contains only one person, it is an Individual selfie. If more than one person is captured in a selfie, then it’s called as ‘Group selfie.’ The latter is also known as ‘Groufie’, ‘Wefie’, and ‘Usie.’ Whatever is the type, the purpose of such selfies is to focus on the people in them. The most popular is the individual selfie which can be shared with close friends and relatives. Of late, Group selfies carry more value as they showcase the relationship and unity of people.

Benefits of Selfies: The need for a photographer is dispensed with. Personal images and varied expressions can be taken and shared with others. Such selfies are used for; 1) informing the position of self to the family that lives in a distant place. 2) Freezing the memorable moments 3) providing the evidence of being present in a place 4) sharing the status with the employer about the progress 5) fostering relationships and coordination.

Damages from Selfies: Many incidents of mishaps and loss of life per se due to the selfie craze are reported from around the world. An overdose of making perfect selfies is likely to cause the Body dysmorphic disorder. Psychological studies conducted in 2015 found the link between the number of selfies posted online, and narcissism was stronger among men than women. A person fell to death when trying to take a selfie with the backdrop of the city, by standing on the parapet on the terrace of the ten-storey building. Selfies with VIPs are used to promote business and influence in the market. Movement of traffic or pedestrians comes to a halt when some people take selfies in busy places such as road, railway stations and malls.

When a famous actor attended a funeral, some people made a rush to take selfies with the actor and the dead in the backdrop. Shame is on such uncivilized people. A couple slipped from a cliff edge and died while taking a selfie. A man accidentally shot himself in the head while taking a selfie with a loaded gun. One lady died from electrocution as she was capturing selfies atop a parked train. A college girl suffered a fatal head injury when she tried to take a selfie and fell from a moving train.

Some countries have launched the awareness and advisory campaigns to educate their citizens on the dangers involved in selfies. In Russia, mock road signs are placed to warn against unsafe poses, and the Russian Ministry of the Interior issued a ‘ Selfie safety guide ‘ that warns the selfie enthusiasts about some common dangerous behaviors. Selfies are good as long as people retain their self-consciousness and respect the feelings of others.

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Source by Mohan Thulasingam

B.Tech in Civil Engineering

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It is essential for the infrastructure of a country to grow if the economy of the country has to grow. An increase in demand of infrastructure will lead to an increase in demand for Engineers. B-Tech in Civil Engineering will help you gain a strong foothold in this field. There are many opportunities for Civil Engineers and enough scope for growth in a sector that is essential to the growth of a country. All Engineers are in demand for rail, road, bridges, waterways and other such infrastructure development projects.

They work in hand with town planning as it helps developing water resources, sewage treatment facilities and other such solutions to problems that the society may face. During the course you will learn about project management, structural sciences and construction. The course includes modules in Structural Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Over the duration of the course students learn through theory as well as practice as they work on live projects.

The course is supported by an enabling faculty and a modern laboratory space.

The requirements for application to this course includes 50% aggregate in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics at Senior/ High School Graduation. Apart from this, applicants will also be judged according to their JEE score.

This is a field with immense scope as infrastructure takes on a predominant role in Government investment. Employment of civil engineers is projected to grow at 8% from 2014 to 2024 and higher as India keeps up pace with China at the global level.

Moreover, as the scope increases and times change, there will be a need for environmental engineers and engineers to plan smart infrastructure for smart cities. a student who have gone on to become architects, technicians, construction managers, environmental engineers, landscape architects, surveyors and urban and regional planners.

Both the private and government sectors are constantly on the lookout for good civil engineers. Some of the private sector companies include Shapoorji Pallonji and Larsen & Toubro. In the Government Sector, you have to clear the Indian Engineering Service and can then be hired for top positions in the Government. With the 7th pay commission, the average salary in the Government sector is at par with the private sector.

After working for a few years in infrastructure and real estate, you would also become a Subject Matter Experts. Such Subject Matter Experts are in high demand in consultancies. An MBA would further bolster your candidature should you prefer to pursue this field.

Beyond B.Tech., civil engineers can also further pursue the professional line of designing. This requires strong analytical skills and experience with AutoCAD. Proficiency in 3D printing could be a great advantage for the future. In the recent past, civil engineering has also found use in robotics and mechatronics. Civil engineers are able to determine load bearing capacities of robots and self-engaging systems that are used in construction. An M. Tech in the combined field will give you a strong hold in this niche but rapidly growing category.

In essence, a civil engineers job is to ensure the smooth running of the economy. This could include buildings that are sturdy as residences, roads that sustain over the years and cause less wear and tear or bridges to be built over rivers.

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Where Are the Women in Tech?

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According to the National Center for Women Information Technology (NCWIT), the U.S. Department of Labor estimated that 1.4 million computer related jobs would be available in the U.S. between 2010-2020. At current graduation rates for Information Technology, we can expect to fill only 32% of those jobs with U.S. Information Technology graduates. The NCWIT further states that although women hold about 57% of professional occupations in the U.S., only 26% of computing occupations are held by women. Even worse, only 3% of those jobs are held by African-American women, 5% by Asian women, and only 2% by Hispanic/Latino women.

The computing industry is failing to attract women to the field and sadly retention is poor. Women are leaving the industry at staggering rates, according to the NCWIT. Overall, the number of people graduating with computer or information science degrees has been steadily decreasing since 2004. There is a severe shortage of talent in IT. Salaries for.net programming and other popular technologies are the highest ever and the need for developers is rising. Companies are in near crisis mode as they fight to retain and attract IT talent. American women with computer science degrees can help fill some of these gaps.

Personally, I have been a woman in IT since the late 70’s when I graduated with a business degree and the MIS Manager at the company I worked for noticed I had programming on my resume. At the time, I was only making a summer pit-stop before pursuing further education in interior design. Struggling with a shortage of programmers even at that time, I was made a very lucrative offer as a full-time programmer, which I accepted. I never thought I would stay in the field, but as the years wore on I realized I was destined for a career in IT. Oddly, it wasn’t my passion but the money was good and the opportunities were like none other for a woman in the 80’s.

The software development career path led me to work with managers and co-workers in a highly male dominated field. Even from a client perspective, all upper management and power lunches that I was included in featured a roundtable of suited men with one petite suited woman – me. I never actually thought much about it. My opinions and work were always highly respected. The knowledge of software and the creation of highly necessary business programming provided a “20 something” woman with opportunities that I could have never had in most other fields. Besides being highly compensated, the work was challenging and I worked with business executives at the highest level.

One of the best things about software development is that you are filling a business need. To sit across major players at top companies and work with them to develop software that will make their business better is an amazing experience. Further, technology is exciting to work in because there is always something new to learn and some new development perspective to take.

I encourage developers to take a field trip to visit users that are performing their daily tasks utilizing the software that the developer wrote. There is no better feeling than watching people doing their jobs or playing a game using something that you made. Further, if you work for a national software manufacturer, there are people all across the nation in many companies and offices or homes using something that you produced. It’s like a song that people listen to everyday and enjoy. As a software developer, you can create a program that is utilized daily and enjoyed.

Software developers create tools that make the world more efficient. Companies rely on software to cut costs and increase revenue and profitability. The career path for software developers is wide in range and offers a host of benefits, including some of the highest salaries. The field of IT is broad and there is a need for IT Managers, Designers, Team Leads, Programmers, Testers, and more.

Although I am a woman in IT, before analyzing some of the statistics, I never realized that there was such a lack of diversity in the industry. Even in my own company, we have a 4 to 1 ratio of men to women in the development role. That statistic is even worse when assessing incoming job applications.

There are solid reasons for women to consider roles in development. First, unemployment statistics are favorable for jobs in IT. Also, tech companies are generally profitable which means some extra job security. The work is very interesting, challenging and always changing. You can get creative. Job growth is steadily increasing. Highly competitive salaries are standard issue. There is no variance in pay between men and women in IT (for comparable experience, education, and skills). This was confirmed by a salary survey performed by Dice.comĀ®.

Why aren’t there more women in tech? Good question. Working in IT can be life changing, and the first step for a woman conquering a development role is making the need for women developers known. Let’s get that pipeline flowing. College students should explore the field, talk to tech companies, and find out more about how coding is cool. The future of IT depends on it.

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Photo Birth Announcements – Photo Paper Or Card Stock?

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There are many decisions to be made when choosing and ordering your Photo Birth Announcements. Where will you order from? What type of design? Which photo of your baby will you use? But another important decision that shouldn’t be overlooked, is choosing what type of paper on which to have your Announcements printed.

Some online Birth Announcement stores only offer their cards printed on photo paper. Others only offer press-printed card stock cards. But many online merchants will offer you both of these options. It’s necessary to understand the differences between these options in order to make the best decision for your personal preferences.

Photo Paper

Birth Announcements printed on photo paper will be an actual photograph. This means the back of the card will be like any other photograph you’ve seen – bearing the manufacturer’s logo, and perhaps a printed copyright or other identifying text from the printer.

Regarding image quality, printing on photo paper will represent your image most accurately. This can have positive or negative results. If your image is good quality, high resolution, well lit and in sharp focus, photo paper will show this quality at its best. However, if your image is of poorer quality, low resolution, or slightly out of focus, photo paper will also make these imperfections more noticeable.

If choosing a photo paper option, make sure the Birth Announcement company you have chosen uses only professional grade photo paper such as Kodak Endura Professional Paper, and that they print their cards at a professional lab. Matte finish works best for Photo Cards as they are easier to view and resist fingerprints.

Card Stock

Having your Announcements printed on card stock will cost a little bit more than photo paper, but card stock will give you a more formal look and sturdier appearance. An additional benefit is that you can often request to have the back side printed as well – perhaps with additional photos or a message of your choice. Or if you leave the back blank you can hand write your own messages.

Most online Photo Birth Announcement companies that offer press-printed card stock cards, typically offer several options to choose from. Many offer sample packs of their stocks but usually charge a small fee to ship these. Understanding the differences between the card stocks will help make choosing your preference easier.

Semi-Gloss – a heavyweight card stock with a smooth finish. This stock is not very glossy but has a slight sheen. Depending on what type of pen you use, this stock can be more difficult to write on than the matte stocks.

UV Coated Semi-Gloss – adding a UV coating to the Semi-Gloss stock will give it a high gloss (shiny) finish. Most companies will charge a bit more for this finish.

Matte Linen – a medium-weight matte stock with a slight linen texture. This stock can have a very elegant and formal feel, due to the linen texture, and is a very popular choice among consumers.

Matte Watercolor – a lighter weight stock with a slight pebbled texture.

Some stores also offer Metallic and Pearl finishes which give the card stock a metallic or luminescent finish, respectively. These finishes, while unique, can make some images look distorted when viewed at different angles. These printing finishes often look better for landscapes, abstracts, or artistic portraits, rather than for a baby’s Birth Announcement photo.

When deciding where to order your Photo Birth Announcements, be sure to review all of the options offered by the online merchants you are considering. Having a sound understanding of the differences between these options will not only make your decision easier, but will help ensure that you are pleased with your final printed product.

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Source by Jennifer Dario